Editor in Chief: Moh. Reza Huwaida Wednesday, December 2nd, 2020

Security and its typology in Modern Political literature


Security and its typology in Modern Political  literature

Security is one of the most complicated concepts in political literature which has been defined in different ways with different types and dimensions. Traditionally, it was often negatively defined such as  not to be in danger or not to be under threat but in contemporary political literature, security is also defined in positive way referring to social and economic comfort or prosperity and even feel secure because feeling secure is as important as security itself. Some scholars believe that security originates from within man and has a close relationship with individual faith. Whenever a person can manage his intellect to establish the necessary balance between his inner powers such as anger, emotion and other sentiments, he is considered as a secure person. In the other word, if the king of human body is his rational power, he is secure but if the king of his body is anger or sentiment he is not secure human. This way, the secure human forms secure society but insecure human form insecure society.
In order to deeply understand the concept of security, we need to decompose it into smaller and more comprehensible components. For example, we need to know what is pillars of security, types of security, dimensions of security, security threat, producer of security, goal of security, whose security and so on? So, let’s begin from typology of security; the first type of security is personal security. This type of security includes the rights of life,  survival and liberty (place of residence, beliefs, occupation), the right to basic necessities, the right to property and the preservation of human dignity. The Individual security is very close to public security. The distinction between individual and public security can be found in the threat factor. Individual security is often violated by governments, while public safety is most often harmed by other citizens.

The second type of security is public security. The subject of public security includes human life, property, honor and dignity of citizens as citizens. Whenever a crime is committed against any of these values, public safety is compromised whether the crime was committed by other citizens or by government, but the harm which inflicted by government opponents on government agents or personnel such as assassinations, kidnapping, target killing is considered outside the scope of public security and is defined in the framework of national or internal security as the act of harm is not imposed because of their citizenship reason.
The third type of security is family security which refers to the thoughts and actions that members of a family take to maintain their peace of mind and physical health against invaders, including the dangers posed by animals or humans.
The forth type of security is social security which pertains to social groups. The social group has two basic elements including: group population and group identity. whenever there is a threat against any of these two basic elements that will endanger social security . Genocide, forced migration, policies that result reduction or dispersal of a group’s population are threats that threaten the population of the group. On the other hand, any action that damages the culture, customs, and values of the group that shape the group’s identity is considered as threat to the group’s identity. For example, banning use of native language or certain worship and the like. The subject of social security is often religious or ethnic groups although trade groups can also be considered a social security subject, but political parties are completely outside the realm of social security subject and mostly considered as national security or internal security.
The fifth type of security is internal security; it seems that the internal security is defined on basis of geographical divisions. According to Bari Bouzan, the internal security is defined on basis of geographical criteria which is unlike external security. it includes all issues that are inside the national territory. Internal and external security are also analyzed as levels of national security. Based on this view, the foreign security is focused on threats from rival or enemy of countries, but internal security is about overthrowing and challenging the authority of ruling government that have not been accepted  by rest of the people. The internal security arise from chronic weaknesses that exist in political structures, facilities and capabilities of the system. In the definition of internal security, two passive and positive approaches can be distinguished.  the first approach, the internal security is defined as absence of coercion, absence of external danger, meeting external needs or a combination of them, which is the mission of the government, but the second approach is defined as a sense of satisfaction and security. As a result, internal security is undoubtedly a part of national security that deals more or less with internal entities and mainly involves the security of the regime. The subject of internal security is often the government, or more precisely the core of the government. Police and intelligence agencies play a key role in ensuring internal security. However, the function of the army cannot be ignored in critical situations, where the threat to internal security has external roots. The military can also play a negative role, especially in non-democratic countries as it is possible to breach individual or social security.
The last of type security is national security. It refers to a condition that there is no threat to national territory, population and properties. Today, all countries have special political police who is responsible to prevent from penetration of foreign enemies, spies and overall all those who attempt to threaten political order of a nation. The more autocratic system, the more aggressive police. These types of regimes easily repress their political opponents under pretext of national enemies. The rest types of security is regional security, international security, cyber security, economic security, health security, psychological security, cultural security and urban security which is beyond the limit of this brief piece to discuss about.

Mohammad Zahir Akbari is the permanent writer of the Daily Outlook Afghanistan. He can be reached at mohammadzahirakbari@gmail.com

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