Editor in Chief: Moh. Reza Huwaida Saturday, July 11th, 2020

The Cause and Consequences of Increasing Social Crimes in Afghanistan


The Cause and Consequences of Increasing  Social Crimes in Afghanistan

Social offences have a long history in human life and are considered as an inevitable social phenomenon. The human history has recorded numerous crimes and catastrophes in its memory. On the other hand, in parallel to the existence of social crime, there have always sought ways to combat and decrease the social issue. Today, criminology as one of the interdisciplinary disciplines, is trying to find the etiology of criminal phenomenon. The etiology and preventive strategies of social crime have long been recognized as an inevitable among the scientific and legal community of the world countries. The Criminal offenses can directly threaten social security while the social security is one of the main philosophies for existence of the political system to protect members of a society against any threatening factors. When a citizen does not feel secure at his home, at his work or on the street then the philosophy of the security system is questioned and so the distance between citizens and political system may also increase.
In large cities of Afghanistan, especially Kabul the number of criminal and organized crime figures has significantly increased in the areas of armed robbery, murder and organized crime. Robbery has unprecedentedly increased in its various forms in Kabul and other major cities .However; various kinds of criminal incidents exist throughout the country which requires a separate research as no accurate statistics are available. When the capital of a country which is the center of political decision making and also considered as one of the secure provinces faced with high crime rates indicate that the country faces a major challenge in controlling crime.
Given the blessing of social media networks and public media of the country, many of the social crimes and events are divulged in Afghanistan.  Every day we read or hear dissimilar crime stories and reports along with other insecurities and it is one of the serious problems threatening the citizens of Kabul. Such offenses have limited night-time sightseeing, and even during days people cannot walk on the roods and sidewalks with full confidence. Many of those who are economically wealthy have installed security cameras around their personal homes or have entangled their walls with fences so as to secure their homes and families but most citizens do not have the economic capability to do so. Therefore, we have to look for a comprehensive solution to save the life of everyone in the society.
The Criminal offenses can be investigated in two different dimensions: the causes and the consequences. Obviously, the criminal offenses are an anti-social phenomenon that disrupts the order and security of the community committed with specific goals and motives. The main factors and motives of increasing social crimes in Kabul are not too complex and ambiguous to be investigated. The first and most important factor of social crimes is poverty. Initially, poverty may compel a sinless citizen to commit social offences while it is against his natural will and conscience, but gradually it can become a part of his personality and alter to a professional criminal. Therefore, in many advanced countries, government allocates a substantial amount of budget as security allowance paying to unemployed and weak people. 
The second factor can be cultural reason. During the transition from tradition to modernization some young people may intentionally violate the traditional values with committing crimes and stealing things.  These categories of people when lose their inner control with seeing no serious social control they have no worries to establish mafia networks in order to obtain a lot of money in a shorter time.  On the other hand, there is an inverse relationship between population growth and security forces. The current police structure cannot cover millions of residents, especially crowded city of Kabul. In addition, the insecurity situation may also provide opportunity for young hungry people to join terrorist groups or betray to their nation and country.
In regard to the Consequences of criminal offense in a country, the most important effects of criminal offenses are increase of insecurity and decrease of government legitimacy. Availing the opportunity, the enemies of the security will also circulate rumors through various channels. Given the conflict contexts, they will try to attract social forces to sabotage the social tranquility. In addition to the detrimental effects on the psychological lives of the people, the social crimes will also have a negative impact on the country’s economy. With everyday Killing and kidnapping, the traders and investors will be compelled to leave the country. So, economical consequences will not only be capital flight but also brain drain from the country.
In regard to prevention of crime, there are two types of methods: penalizing strategy and non-penalizing strategy. In third world countries, whatever action may be used to reduce the crime but experts believe that only punishment strategy will not work and so we need to root out the real cause.  Meanwhile, all preventive strategies are focused to reduce the crimes not reach to zero level as it is too difficult or impossible. Therefore, crime is an inevitable phenomenon of social organization we should use proper strategies to reduce crime, not fully eliminate it. However, reaching to this point is a distant dream to the war-torn countries like Afghanistan.
On the basis of criminological theories, we need to use certain indicators to assess the success of crime preventive programs. One of the most important indicators is the criminological capacity and this can be used as a tool in the hands of forensic researchers to shows the degree of success of programs and allows them to determine to what extent they have been successful in implementing programs. the capacity is determined by figures at a specific time and location. But this is done under certain conditions to determine which crime in that specific area is above or below than normal level

Mohammad Zahir Akbari is the permanent writer of the Daily Outlook Afghanistan. He can be reached at mohammadzahirakbari@gmail.com

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