Editor in Chief: Moh. Reza Huwaida Sunday, May 31st, 2020

How to Minimize Conflicts?

Conflicts exist within every human society. And, it points towards the fact that there are different kinds of people and groups of people within a society and their interests are different and in certain cases, they are even different from one another. There is no possible way of avoiding all sorts of conflicts; however, it is possible to minimize them and their influences if they are understood and handled properly.
Understanding the reasons of conflicts may provide an opportunity that can support in handling it them properly. One of the basic reasons of conflict is misunderstanding. Misunderstanding has the tendency to generate and enlarge a conflict to a great extent. One of the basic reasons of misunderstanding is the communication gap or communication errors.
Every human being has his unique perception and frame of reference through which he/she understands the world or the different phenomena, processes and happenings in the world. So, the objective reality is not necessarily what a person perceives; what a person perceives is basically the subjective interpretation of the objective reality.
The differences in interests are another main reason of conflict. There are different sorts of interests that a person strives to pursue in his or her life. These interests range from a very minor personal benefit to the large economic and political benefits. However, most of the interests are measured in economic terms in today’s capitalist society where almost every person is running after money. There is a tough competition among the people to achieve different resources so as to make their lives comfortable; unfortunately, these resources are limited and everybody cannot have what he/she wants. This gives rise to a competition and on most of the occasions this competition ends in clashes and conflicts. Therefore, the differences in interests have a potential to generate different types of clashes.
The differences in interests turning into conflicts can be best understood in the context of collective life. Take the example of different countries. All the countries in the world have certain interests, which are pursued and defined by the countries’ political systems and governments. All the countries want to pursue their national interests through diplomatic means; however, the diplomatic trickery cannot always earn the countries their interests as others also have certain interests which clash with them. This situation generates conflicts among nations, which, if not resolved through diplomatic prudence may turn into wars.
The conflicts have the capacity to bring wars, disorders and destructions; therefore, efforts should be made to resolve the conflicts in a proper manner. It basically starts with the personal endeavors. In personal life, conflict can be resolved in so many ways. The most important point is to understand that the conflicts are unavoidable and they are bound to occur; therefore, the imperative thing is how to respond to the conflicts. There are three main categories of an individual’s response to the conflict.
First, he/she may remain very much pessimistic to the conflict and try to avoid it even though it is affecting him/her.
The second response is that of very aggressive people. They are the ones who overdo most of the things on most of the occasions. Then there is the moderate response and that is considered as the most appropriate one. That is response of a real peace-maker.    
With a moderate response it is possible to thwart certain conflicts. For a moderate response it is important to have certain personal qualities as well. The personality traits like tolerance and prudence can be very much helpful in resolving conflicts.
If taken on collective level, there are conflicts among groups, institutions, states and even groups of states. In order to resolve the conflicts among the groups and institutions, it is necessary to adopt democratic culture and tradition. The democratic principles allow the groups, institutions and states to form an administration or government through the consent of all the people involved. These principles make sure that everybody should have a say not only in the formation of the administration or the government but also in the undertakings of the government.
Another important key to resolving conflict within the groups and among the groups is the rule of law. It is necessary to prioritize justice and consider it above the social, economic and political status. Both the weak and the strong should be treated alike and they should be considered equal while justice is being implemented.
Afghanistan is also one of the nations that have been suffering from conflicts. There are different reasons of the conflicts in Afghanistan. There have been religious intolerance, tribal bounds and ethnic controversies. All these conflicts have basically been utilized politically and have been intentionally turned into troublesome issues; therefore, they have influenced Afghan nation to a large extent. There is no doubt in the fact that Afghan society is a heterogeneous society; but this heterogeneity could best be used in order to embellish the social structure with variety and different colors.