Men, in struggle to form a better state to live in, have been through different types of political systems. They have been through Monarchy, Oligarchy, Aristocracy, Fascism, Communism, heocracy, Democracy and some others.
These different political setups have been formed in different parts of human history and in different societies of the world and the purpose behind their creation have been to guarantee a better political structure for the human beings, wherein they have more bliss and contentment and less trouble and sufferings. Though the struggle in this regard has been comprehensive, the perfect and ideal structure is yet to be formed.
Different political setups have had different characteristics, each one differing from the other both in theory and practice. But through out the evolution of political systems, neglecting few exceptions, the setups have evolved from being more autocratic to more democratic.
One of the basic discussions throughout the formation and evolution of different political systems and theories have been the question that 'whether the individuals are for the state or the state for individuals'. The authoritarian systems have always suggested that individuals are for the state and they have to sacrifice their individuality for the greater good of the state.
Monarchy, Fascism, Communism and Theocratic states have been an example to such a concept. While, with the rise of individualism and laissez faire, mostly after Renaissance, the concept that the state is made for the individuals so as to safeguard their basic rights started flourished and ultimately resulted in the formation of modern democracy.
Furthermore, another important question that remained under-discussion throughout this evolution was, "Is the state an end in itself or it is established to attain certain other ends?" The authoritarian ideologies remained divergent towards the view that state is an end in itself, while the democratic ideologies kept on emphasizing that the states are developed to achieve certain other objectives; welfare of individuals in this regard has been the dominant of these objectives.
Definitely, today's democratic system, as practiced in well-established democratic states, has had a tendency to both strive for the basic rights of the individuals and their welfare. Further it has the capacity to guarantee the greater good of the people who fall under the umbrella of its influence, as it has its formation through the will of the people, which is practiced through elections.
Moreover, it has the capacity to deal with the diversities present in the society, through appropriate representation of various communities. Thus, a democratic system, followed with good intentions is the best possible form of government for a society.
At present, the same sort of democracy is required for the countries like Afghanistan that are yet to establish their political systems. Afghan political parties and authorities have to keep in mind that the solution to their major problems; like the basic rights of individuals, welfare of the people in general, the accommodation of diverse social structure and above all political stability lie in democratic form of government, which must not be hindered in any case.